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新北上元考研培训-2017年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题2

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Section II: Reading Comprehension

Part A                                                                         

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. 40 points

                                                                                                                                           Text 3

Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country’s GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to.

  The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century. Many argue that it is a flawed concept. It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do. By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record low unemployment and high growth figures. If everything was going so well, then why did over 17 million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?

  A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question. Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvements for its citizens. Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing.

  While all of these countries face their own challenges, there are a number of consistent themes. Yes, there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash, but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline. Yet this isn’t the case with all countries. Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society, income equality and the environment.

  This is a lesson that rich countries can learn: When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different.

  So, what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations, as a measure, it is no longer enough. It does not include important factors such as environmental quality or education outcomes – all things that contribute to a person’s sense of well-being.

The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth. But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress.

 

 31.Robert F. Kennedy is cited because he _________.

  [A]praised the UK for its GDP

  [B]identified GDP with happiness

  [C]misinterpreted the role of GDP

  [D]had a low opinion of GDP

 32.It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that _________.

  [A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern

  [B]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK

  [C]the UK will contribute less to the world economy

  [D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP

 33.Which of the following is true about the recent annual study?

  [A]It is sponsored by 163 countries.

  [B]It excludes GDP as an indicator.

  [C]Its criteria are questionable.

  [D]Its results are enlightening.

 34.In the last two paragraphs, the author suggests that ______.

  [A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom

  [B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline

  [C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP

  [D]it requires caution to handle economic issues

 35.Which of the following is the best title for the text?

  [A]High GDP but Inadequate Well-being, a UK Lesson

  [B]GDP Figures, a Window on Global Economic Health

  [C]Rebort F. Kennedy, a Terminator of GDP

  [D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being

 

 

Text 4

In a rare unanimous ruling, the US Supreme Court has overturned the corruption conviction of a former Virginia governor, Robert McDonnell. But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari automobile from a company seeking access to government.

  The high court’s decision said the judge in Mr. McDonnell’s trial failed to tell a jury that it must look only at his “official acts,” or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties.

  Merely helping a gift-giver gain access to other officials, unless done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found.

  The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.” But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act”.

  The court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal. Elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution for bribery. “The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”

  But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. Officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. This type of integrity requires well-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.

  Favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption. But it is not always corruption. Rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy. If connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society—that all are equal in treatment by government—is undermined. Good governance rests on an understanding of the inherent worth of each individual.

  The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.

  

36. The underlined sentence (Para.1) most probably shows that the court ______.

  [A] avoided defining the extent of McDonnell’s duties

  [B] made no compromise in convicting McDonnell

  [C] was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct

  [D] refused to comment on McDonnell’s ethics

37. According to Paragraph 4, an official act is deemed corruptive only if it involves ______.

  [A] leaking secrets intentionally

  [B] sizable gains in the form of gifts

  [C] concrete returns for gift-givers

  [D] breaking contracts officially

38. The court’s ruling is based on the assumption that public officials are ______.

  [A] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents

  [B] qualified to deal independently with bureaucratic issues

  [C] allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters

  [D] exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism

39. Well-enforced laws in government transparency are needed to ______.

  [A] awaken the conscience of officials

  [B] guarantee fair play in official access

  [C] allow for certain kinds of lobbying

  [D] inspire hopes in average people

40. The author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is ______.

  [A] sarcastic.

  [B] tolerant.

  [C] skeptical.

  [D] supportive

参考答案:2017年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题参考答案

新北上元考研培训-2017年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题2

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